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Flattening a Site: From Database to Static Files

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I just finished converting a site from running on a database-driven CMS (Textpattern in this case) to a bunch of static HTML files. No, I don’t mean I switched to a static site generator like Jekyll or Octopress, I mean it’s just plain HTML files and nothing else. I call this “flattening” a site.I wanted a way to refer to this process that would distinguish it from “archiving”, which to me also connotes taking the site offline. I passed on “embalming” and “mummifying” for similar reasons.

In this form, a web site can run for decades with almost no maintenance or cost. It will be very tedious if you ever want to change it, but that is fine because the whole point is long-term preservation. It’s a considerate, responsible thing to do with a website when you’re pretty much done updating it forever. Keeping the site online prevents link rot, and you never know what use someone will make of it.

How to Flatpack

Before getting rid of your site’s CMS and its database, make use of it to simplify the site as much as possible. It’s going to be incredibly tedious to fix or change anything later on so now’s the time to do it. In particular you want to edit any templates that affect the content of multiple pages:

Next, on your web server, make a temp directory (outside the site’s own directory) and download static copies of all the site’s pages into it with the wget command:

wget --recursive --domains --html-extension

This will download every page on the site and every file linked to on those pages. In my case it included images and MP3 files which I didn’t need. I deleted those until I had only the .html files left.

Digression: Mass-editing links and filenames from the command line

This bit is pretty specific to my own situation but perhaps some will find it instructive. At this point I was almost done, but there was a bit of updating to do that couldn’t be done from within my CMS. My home page on this site had “Older” and “Newer” links at the bottom in order to browse through the episodes, and I wanted to keep it this way. These older/newer links were generated by the CMS with POST-style URLS: and so on. When wget downloads these links (and when the --html-extension option is invoked), it saves them as files of the form index.html?pg=2.html. These all needed to be renamed, and the pagination links that refer to them needed to be updated.

I happen to use ZSH, which comes with an alternative to the standard mv command called zmv that recognizes patterns:

zmv 'index.html\?pg=([0-9]).html' 'page$1.html'
zmv 'index.html\?pg=([0-9][0-9]).html' 'page$1.html'

So now these files were all named page01.html through page20.html but they still contained links in the old ?pg= format. I was able to update these in one fell swoop with a one-liner:

grep -rl \?pg= . | xargs sed -i -E 's/\?pg=([0-9]+)/page\1.html/g'

To dissect this a bit:

OK, digression over.

Back up the CMS and Database

Before actually switching, it’s a good idea to freeze-dry a copy of the old site, so to speak, in case you ever needed it again.

Export the database to a plain-text backup:

mysqldump -u username -pPASSWORD db_name > dbbackup.sql

Then save a gzip of that .sql file and the whole site directory before proceeding.

Shutting down the CMS and swapping in the static files

Final steps:

  1. Move the HTML files you downloaded and modified above into the site’s public folder.
  2. Add redirects or rewrite rules for every page on your site. For example, if your server uses Apache, you would edit the site’s .htaccess file so that URLs on your site like would be internally rewritten as This is going to be different depending on what CMS was being used, but essentially you want to be sure that any URL that anyone might have used as a link to your site continues to work.
  3. Delete all CMS-related files from your site’s public folder (you saved that backup, right?) In my case I deleted index.php, css.php, and the whole textpattern/ directory.

Once you’re done

Watch your site’s logs for 404 errors for a couple of weeks to make sure you didn’t miss anything.

What to do now? You could leave your site running where it is. Or, long term, consider having it served from a place like NearlyFreeSpeech for pennies a month.